A team of researchers from the Rutgers University found the origins of the protein formations responsible for the building blocks of life. They are some simple molecules that fueled ancient life on Earth. They also serve as chemical signals that NASA could utilize to look after any sign of life on other planets. The study, which forecasts what the most ancient proteins were approximately 3.5 billion to 2.5 billion years ago, sheds light on other investigations, as well. The researchers retraced the formation of enzymes from the present to most ancient times. The solution to such a puzzling case needed two missing pieces. And, as unveiled, life on Earth could not be possible without them. New Research Brings New Information About the Origins of Building Blocks of Life The team of researchers, known as ENIGMA (Evolution of Nanomachines in Geospheres and Microbial Ancestors), needed to build a network linked by their roles in metabolism. By doing such a thing, they succeeded in identifying the missing pieces. They developed models of proteins in the laboratory and examined whether they can influence reactions critical for the most ancient sign of the metabolism. ENIGMA teamed up with NASA and performed a series of tests and other analyses to unveil the role of the simplest proteins that catalyzed the most ancient stages of life. Researchers believe that life was made from tiny building blocks, similar to Lego, and produced cells and more advanced organisms like us. Paul G. Falkowski, ENIGMA's principal investigator, stated: "We think we have found the building blocks of life - the Lego set that led, ultimately, to the evolution of cells, animals, and plants." The team centered their investigation on two protein "folds" that are considered the first building in early metabolism. They are a ferredoxin fold that attaches iron-sulfur structures, and "Rossmann" fold, which connects nucleotides. These are two pieces of the puzzle that must match in the evolution of the building blocks of life.